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The dangers of using poisons and chemicals

The production and use of chemicals is the main factor in the development and progress of all countries. In fact, chemicals directly or indirectly affect the lives of all people.

Along with the increase in the world’s population, the need for chemicals is also increasing. For this reason, the facilities for the production and processing of chemicals are expanding both in developed and developing countries. Today, significant amounts of chemicals are produced and stored in the world, and despite the macroeconomic benefits, their use is always associated with possible health and environmental risks. For this reason, in recent years there have been concerns about the effects that chemical substances and agents can directly or indirectly have on human health and the environment. has increased

Therefore, considering the increasing threats of chemical substances and the need of members of the society to protect their health against the harmful effects of these substances, it is necessary to have an accurate and efficient system regarding the preparation and implementation of chemical safety and protection programs with the aim of providing services at different levels. Establish a community. In fact, this system establishes a kind of integrated chemical safety management throughout the country.

The Department of Chemical Agents of the Environment and Labor Health Center, with the coordination and cooperation of other relevant departments, as the authority for issuing standards, instructions and guidelines related to protection and safety against the dangers of chemical substances and the staff of experts and specialists at the provincial executive levels with training The appropriate and necessary information and their presentation to other departments involved in the distribution, production, consumption and application of chemical substances as well as the use of rules and guidelines will be able to play an effective role in reducing chemical accidents and incidents and the burden of diseases and acute and chronic complications caused by Contact with chemicals.

Targets :

– Reducing the burden of diseases and acute and chronic complications caused by chemicals

– Reducing the harmful effects of chemicals on the environment and property

Definitions:

Pesticide: refers to a chemical substance of natural or artificial origin that is used to control or reduce the population of pests such as insects. Pesticides mainly include: herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, snail killers and nematodes.

Chemical accident: refers to an incident or event that causes life, financial or environmental risks and threats due to leakage, diffusion and dispersion or explosion and fire caused by chemical substances.

Chemical safety: It is the concept of prevention and management of short-term and long-term harmful health effects of chemicals for humans and the environment, as well as minimizing the economic losses caused by them.

Chemical safety profile: to the set of documents and documents related to the preparation, production, consumption, storage, distribution and transportation of chemical substances in a specific geographical area such as a city, province, etc., along with the rules, guidelines and regulations of the subject Transporting, consuming and storing chemicals is referred to.

Toxins and pesticides

Farmers and gardeners work hard to get crops from the land, but the fruits of their work are eaten first by insects and rodents.

Therefore, in order to get rid of plant pests and obtain better and more crops, they spray fields and gardens, and in order to get rid of cows, sheep, chickens and other birds from pests, weevils, etc., stables and storage areas They spray them. They even rub some poisons on the animal’s skin.

When the presence of flies, cockroaches, fleas, ticks, scorpions and other insects bothers us, we think of killing them with poison.

1- The poison should be kept out of the reach of people and children and in a place equipped with a suitable door and lock.

2- Under no circumstances should poison be kept in the kitchen and living room.

3- The poison should be kept in its own can and container, and it should never be poured into another container or glass because it may be used by mistake.

4- The lid of the poison can must be tightly closed after each use.

5- The poison should not be moved with a vehicle that carries passengers, livestock or food.

6- Poison should not be stored in or near food.

Who can work with Sam?

1- A person who knows the poison and the dangers arising from it and knows how to use it so as not to harm himself or the people around him (so spraying is not for everyone).

2- People who are healthy and strong, old men, pregnant women and people under 18 years old should not spray in any way.

4- All those who have certain diseases such as heart, kidney and liver diseases or even colds should not be present at the time of spraying.

Safety principles in working with pesticides:

Ø All containers containing poisons and pesticides must have labels that include information on the name and type of poison, degree of toxicity, physical and chemical characteristics, health information of the poison, recommendations on first aid, storage and fire conditions, that substance. be inserted

Ø      All people who use pesticides should get enough information about the desired substance before using it and should know enough about the side effects of contact with the poison.

Ø During spraying, information should be given to the residents of the area or place about the time of spraying and the type of poisons used, and they should be told to report the cases immediately if they see any side effects.

Ø The poison storage floor should be made of concrete and impermeable, with suitable temperature and humidity (15-40% Celsius) with sufficient ventilation, and poisons should be kept in completely closed containers, away from food and on pallets. The availability of fire extinguishers and first aid boxes is essential in this place.

Compliance with safety tips during spraying:

1- The use of suitable personal protective equipment including one-piece work clothes with cotton lining, neoprene apron, long-legged plastic gloves with cotton lining, plastic boots with cotton socks, hat, glasses and face shield, appropriate breathing mask (so that So that the poison does not come into contact with the hands and body, the person who sprays must use clothes, hats and plastic gloves that cover his body, hands and hair completely (Figure 1-4).

Because it is possible to spray drops of poison into the eyes when spraying, the sprayer must use special glasses that protect the eyes completely. Therefore, when spraying, a mask or a clean cloth must be used to cover the mouth and nose.

In order not to get a drop of poison on the feet when spraying, or to prevent the bottom of the shoe from being contaminated with poison when walking on the sprayed area, they should use long boots.)

2- Refraining from consuming any food, drink and smoking during the spraying period

3- Keeping people, especially children, away from the spraying area and removing animals and birds from the spraying area

4- Spraying should not be done in the direction of wind or during rain.

5- Refrain from entering the sprayed environment for 24 hours

Safety tips after spraying:

1- Cleaning and washing the spraying equipment at the end of daily work and not leaving the remaining poisons in the spraying pump in the Haw River or stagnant or flowing water.

2- Not using empty poison containers as food storage containers or for storing animal food.

3- Burning containers and empty envelopes of poison and burying empty metal cans of poisons under the soil.

4- Conduct periodic examinations every 6 months for pesticide workers.

6- Bathing after finishing work and changing all clothes and washing all protective equipment used with soap and water.

Teach those spraying the following:

Do not drink, eat or smoke while spraying.

If the poison is splashed in the eyes, immediately wash the eyes with plenty of water.

If poison is spilled on the body, the area should be washed immediately with soap and water.

After finishing spraying clothes, take out mask and boots, wash hands and face and never go home with sprayed clothes and shoes.

After finishing the work, leave the sprayed area and rest in the open space.

Other points that should be considered when using poisons are:

Ø Poisons that are used to kill rats are very dangerous for humans, and rat poison should be used in places that are far from the reach of children and other people, and should not be spilled near food or places where cattle And sheep, chickens or birds are kept to avoid. If animals eat these poisons and die and their meat is used, it causes poisoning and is dangerous.

Ø      Some rat killer baits contain anti-coagulant poisons that if animals or humans eat them, they will suffer from internal bleeding and blood may flow from the mouth and nose. .

Ø To prevent insects from being found in rice and beans, flour, etc., tablets (aluminum phosphide) are used, which produce poisonous gas after opening the container.

Ø      Some people are not aware of the dangers of these pills, and they may open the tube of pills inside the room and put it in a sack of rice or beans and stay there, as a result, because the poisonous gas comes out of the pills, it causes People will be poisoned. In addition, if someone eats these pills, he is highly poisoned and may die. Therefore, due to the dangerous nature of these pills, you should be careful when taking them:

Ø The package of pills should be kept out of the reach of people and children and in a locked place.

Ø      Before using in warehouses, all the doors and windows should be closed and the gaps of the warehouse must be covered with nylon.

Ø No one should sleep in the rooms around the warehouse after pilling.

Ø      Plastic gloves should be used while removing the tablets from the container.

Ø      If the tablet is placed inside the bean sack, it should be completely covered with a nylon bag and placed outside the room and in the open air.

Ø      If someone has inhaled aluminum phosphide gas and has nausea and vomiting or has eaten it, we must refer him immediately.

How to use insecticides

They usually use insecticides to get rid of the nuisance of flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches. Insecticide cans contain poison along with flammable gas. So do not put them near the flame or use them. Insecticide should not be used when people are sitting or sleeping in the room or eating, because the poison particles sit on the body and food or enter the lungs through the mouth and nose.

To reduce the risks of sprays, the following points should be observed:

Sprays should be kept completely away from the face during use.

These materials should not be stored near heat.

Use sprays that have the “ozone layer friendly” mark on them.

Empty spray cans should never be punctured or burned.

Do not leave leaking spray cans in the environment.

Colors

Common colors used in homes have harmful effects on human health. The instructions for their correct use are as follows:

Avoid contact of these substances with skin and eyes.

Avoid eating, drinking and smoking while painting.

It should not be used in the painted environment until the paint is dry.

Make sure the paint cans lids are tightly closed and keep them out of the reach of children and heat.

Colorants

These ingredients are used to color the food. Of course, the dyes obtained from plants are harmless, but the artificial dyes that contain various chemical compounds, if consumed in excess, can damage the nervous system, cause muscle pain, and in some cases cause cancer or even death. be.

Flavoring ingredients

Among these ingredients, we can mention all kinds of sauces and other ingredients. High consumption of such chemicals causes headache, nausea, lethargy and weakness, drowsiness, fat deposits in the liver and kidneys.

table salt

A small amount of salt is necessary for the body, but its high consumption causes high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease.

Food containers and cooking utensils

Packaging of dishes and kitchen appliances made from newspapers, recycled plastics, or painted porcelain and ceramics usually contain dangerous chemicals that are mixed with food, causing pollution and poisoning, and side effects such as dizziness, It causes diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain and sometimes brain disorders. In some cases, prolonged contact and use of these substances causes disease and sometimes cancer in humans.

To reduce the effects of such appliances on human health, it is suggested:

1- Use white paper or clean plastic bags instead of newspaper for food packaging.

2- Avoid using dishes with bright colors and glossy glazes.

3- Avoid storing acidic foods such as vinegar or pickles in plastic containers because plastic dissolves in acid and produces toxic substances.

Necessary tips about detergents:

Introduction:

Today, due to the diversity in the factory production of detergents, bleaches, washing and cleaning in general at home has not only speeded up, but has become easier.

There are various natural materials such as table salt, lime juice, glycerin, white vinegar and baking soda, etc., which are used for stain removal and whitening and are also very useful, but they are not enough for all cases, so we all have to We use industrial chemical products.

Poisoning caused by inhalation of detergents:

Most cases of poisoning with detergents are of the inhalation type.

The use of bleaching materials in the closed space of the bathroom and toilet due to the creation of chlorine gas irritates the airways and causes symptoms of poisoning in people, and cough, wheezing and shortness of breath, especially in people with a history of lung diseases, among other symptoms. Poisoning with these substances.

Sometimes people, especially housewives, use Vitex mixture and very strong acid compounds such as salt ink for greater cleanliness of ceramic surfaces, which, due to some chemical interactions, cause the release of more chlorine gas and as a result, the severity of poisoning symptoms. Being old and having lung and heart diseases can lead to death

Repeated contact with bleaching agents causes loss of skin fat in the contact area, and as a result, itching, burning, wounds, watery and purulent secretions occur. The best way to prevent dry skin and the recurrence of these lesions is to use creams containing urea, glycerin, vaseline, etc.

Housewives should definitely use gloves when cleaning the house and using detergents, cleaners, and bleaches, and due to the possibility of causing an allergy to rubber gloves, cotton gloves should be used first and then plastic gloves.

The danger of poisoning children with detergents:

Due to carelessness and carelessness, some make cleaning and whitening materials available to children, and there is a possibility that they will come into contact with these materials due to curiosity.

Parents should not force their children to vomit in case of food poisoning, because this will cause more damage and burns to the digestive system. Therefore, it is better to dilute with water or milk before bringing the injured person to the hospital or medical center and give milk or water to the child frequently in the amount of 30 to 50 cc.

Safety recommendations :

1- When using chemical detergents, be sure to use a suitable mask and gloves.

2- The combination of ink salt and Vitex is very dangerous; Especially for eyes, skin and lungs. It is recommended to avoid combining these two substances.

3- Always keep chemical products and detergents in their original container, never store these materials in a food container (such as a soft drink bottle). This action causes children to eat these substances by mistake.

4- Always close the lid immediately after using chemicals.

5- If you use bleaching agents and all kinds of acids, be careful not to splash them on your skin, eyes or even your clothes.

6- When you use the above materials to wash the toilets, be sure to open a window in that place and turn on the ventilation if there is one.

Instead of chemicals, the following items can be used at home:

To scent the air, pour fresh lemon juice in a container and use it as incense.

To clean glass and windows, dissolve two spoons of lemon juice in one liter of water and clean the glass with a wet newspaper.

Instead of using naphthalene, you can put newspaper around the wardrobe.

To clean sewer pipes, dissolve 12 cups of baking soda in boiling water and pour into the sewer pipes.

Use lemon juice with a little washing up liquid to make metal dishes shiny.

Instead of using dish polishing powders, use salt or baking soda.

Instead of using chemicals, use an equal mixture of lemon juice, honey and milk to clean your face.

disinfection

Disinfection is the destruction of pathogens in inanimate environments, such as residential areas, clothes and dishes, water, vegetables, etc. In other words, disinfection is used in the living environment.

disinfection

Disinfection is the destruction of pathogens from living tissues, such as skin disinfection or wound disinfection. The concentration of disinfectants should be lower than that of disinfectants to avoid tissue damage. For this reason, disinfectants are less toxic than disinfectants.

Sterilization

When our purpose of using an antimicrobial substance is to destroy all microbes, whether pathogenic or non-pathogenic, this process is called sterilization.

pasteurize

When our purpose of using antimicrobial substance is to destroy pathogenic agents, this process is called pasteurization.

All kinds of disinfectants

Disinfectants are divided into two categories:

A – Physical

B – Chemical

A- Physical disinfectants

A: Physical disinfectants are:

heat

Cold

dry

Sunlight

heat

There are two types of heat:

moist heat

dry heat

moist heat

All microbes are destroyed by moist heat, and the speed of their death depends on the temperature and time, so the higher the temperature, the shorter the time to destroy pathogens.

Moist heat includes the following:

Use of steam

to boil

pasteurize

Use of steam: This method is carried out using an autoclave, in which various materials are sterilized by steam under pressure. This device can perform disinfection at 121 degrees Celsius in 15 to 20 minutes. This method is used to disinfect hospital equipment.

Boiling: The process of boiling kills all microbes at 100 degrees Celsius for 10 to 15 minutes. This method is used to disinfect clothes and accessories that are contaminated with patient’s sputum and feces and chemical disinfectants are not available. This method is very suitable for disinfecting water or various devices such as syringes, razors, etc. in emergency situations.

Pasteurization: It is used to eliminate pathogens in milk or food. In this method, the food is heated between 60 and 70 degrees Celsius and immediately cooled.

dry heat

The effect of wet heat is much greater than dry heat and at similar temperatures, the time required to sterilize with wet heat is less than dry heat, but in cases where wet heat cannot be used, dry heat should be used, which includes is below:

Four: Using Four is a method for sterilizing metal and glass devices, which can withstand high temperatures, and with this device, you can sterilize at 160 degrees Celsius for 2 hours or at 170 degrees Celsius for one hour. done, in this method all pathogenic agents are destroyed.

Flame: Metal laboratory equipment or the opening of the test tube can be sterilized by placing it on the flame of an alcohol or gas lamp for a few seconds.

Burning: Burning is the best way to destroy pathogens and is the best means of sterilization. This method is usually effective for removing contaminated objects such as wound bandages, used cloths, clothes of patients suffering from contagious and dangerous diseases, paper cups of infected people, garbage, carcasses of infected animals and other worthless items.

Other dry heat can be called iron. Ironing the clothes disinfects the clothes and kills many germs.

Cold

Although the cold does not have a disinfecting effect, it prevents the growth of microbes and acts as an anti-corruption agent. Cold stops the growth of microbes and fungi that cause food spoilage.

The duration of food storage in different degrees of cold is different and depends on the effect of the degree of cold on each type of food.

dry

Different bacteria have different sensitivity to dryness. Drying materials that contain bacteria often leads to their death. Dry and clean surfaces remove a small amount of bacteria. Dryness is effective in preventing the reproduction of bacteria. Drying is another old way to preserve food, and it is mostly used for fruits, vegetables, milk, fish, etc. In addition, the drying process reduces the volume and saves the cost of its transportation.

Light, air, sun and rays

Sunlight is the cheapest and most suitable disinfectant, in general, microbes are extremely sensitive to air and sunlight. Airing and sunning houses, clothes and furniture is one of the most important ways to disinfect and prevent various diseases.

B – Chemical disinfectants

Chemicals with different concentrations must be used to disinfect or sterilize equipment that cannot tolerate heat.

Before using these materials, the equipment must be completely washed and dried. The presence of visible contamination such as dried blood causes the survival of bacteria and other organisms, the wetness of the equipment dilutes the solution.

The most important chemical disinfectants are:

Chlorine, creolin, alcohol, savolen, betadine, halamide, lime

Chlorine Gas

Chlorine is a yellow-green gas that has strong germicidal properties. Breathing this gas is very dangerous for humans and other mammals. Chlorine gas is basically suffocating, and when it enters the lungs, the lungs are stimulated and begin to secrete fluids from their walls to neutralize the effect of the gas. In severe poisoning, the amount of liquid secreted is so high that it causes suffocation and death, for this reason, in the First World War, this gas was widely used as a chemical weapon.

Some chlorinated substances used for cleaning and hygiene, such as perchlorine, bleaching substances (chlorine shower) and bleaching liquids (javal water, etc.) when mixed with acids, even weak acids such as vinegar or some substances they are mixed, they emit a large amount of chlorine gas, which is dangerous to breathe and can cause immediate and acute or chronic and long-term damage.

Disinfection with perchlorine

Perchlorine powder is usually used to disinfect drinking water, which was described in the topic of water hygiene.

Perchlorine is used to disinfect porcelain and plastic dishes and the like, bathrooms, toilets, laundromats, slaughterhouses, especially toilets in homes where the patient is suffering from an infectious disease.

To disinfect the dishes, you must first clean the dishes with cleaning materials such as Riga, Tide, etc. from fat and various substances and drain them. Then, in a 10-liter container, he mixed a teaspoon (5 grams) of perchlorin and placed the dishes in this solution for 5 minutes and then washed them with clean water. Then cover the dishes to dry in the air. Avoid using a cloth to dry such dishes.

To disinfect the laundry room with perchlorine, we use 100 grams of perchlorine powder in one cubic meter of water.

In order to disinfect suspicious corpses with perchlorine, we place the corpses in a solution of 100 grams of perchlorine powder in one cubic meter of water for 10 minutes after blocking the pores (especially in the case of plague).

In order to disinfect the floor of hospital corridors with perchlorine, we use a solution of 5 grams of celery in 5 liters of water.

Sanitization of vegetables and fruits

Due to the fact that for watering and feeding vegetables, polluted water and human and animal fertilizers are often used, and in addition, domestic and wild animals come and go in the vegetable fields, so these types of agricultural products are different types of seeds. Parasites and microbes are contaminated and their uncontrolled consumption in raw form, including eating vegetables, seasonal salad, decorating food dishes, inside sandwiches, lettuce, carrots (carrot juice), cabbage, cauliflower, etc., causes parasites. Intestinal and intestinal infectious diseases such as diarrhea, typhoid, pseudo-typhoid, cholera, altor, and… For this reason, it is emphasized that in order to prevent such diseases, the vegetables that are to be consumed raw must be sanitized in the following way and then consumed.

The sanitization of vegetables includes several steps:

Cleaning: First clean and wash the vegetables to remove waste materials and mud.

Disinfection: after cleaning the vegetables, fill a 5-liter container with water and then pour 3-5 drops of dishwashing liquid for every liter of water and stir, then put the vegetables in the Kefab and after 5 minutes Remove the vegetable from the Kefab and wash it thoroughly with clean water to remove the parasite eggs and the remaining dishwashing liquid.

disinfection

To disinfect and eliminate germs, completely dissolve one gram (half a teaspoon) of 70% Perchlorin powder in a 5-liter container filled with water to obtain a disinfectant solution. Then put the disinfected vegetable in this solution for 5 minutes to kill its germs.

If perchlorin powder is not available, you can use a tablespoon of Javal water (instead of one gram of perchlorin) or any other approved disinfectant available in pharmacies or stores according to its instructions.

Wash

Wash the disinfected vegetable again with clean water to remove the remaining chlorine and then consume it.

Other materials that are used for disinfection are:

creolin

To disinfect toilets, especially in contaminated homes and hospitals, 5% Creolin should be used. The following formula is used to prepare a 5% creolin and crosol solution, depending on the percentage of the mixture:

  1. P

K = amount of creolin present

C = required concentration, which is usually 5%.

P = concentration percentage of purchased creolin.

L = amount of 5% solution in liters

Example: If we have ten liters of 30% creolin, the amount of solution that can be prepared with a 5% concentration is as follows:

The amount of solution in liters: 15 = 10: (5 x 30) = L

Example: How many kilos of 70% perchlorine powder are needed to prepare 250 liters of 1% chlorine solution?

L = (P.K) ÷ C (1x 250) ÷ 70 = 3.57 Kg

It is better to use a normal sprayer or sprinkler to disinfect toilets, feces and vomit. Each ten-liter tank of one sprayer is enough to disinfect 150 square meters of the floor surface of rooms and corridors. The waste is impregnated with 5% creolin and then destroyed.

Creolin is stored in 20 and 25 liter containers.

alcohol

Alcohol is a disinfectant and coagulates albumin, and due to this coagulation, the penetration power of 90° alcohol is less than 60°, so its disinfecting effect is less.

Alcohol is a good germ killer and has a great effect in the normal state where its concentration is between 50 and 70 degrees. In the vicinity of water, it shows its effect on pathogenic agents. 100% alcohol is not a disinfectant, but when some water is added to it, it becomes germicidal. People who disinfect the patient’s room must disinfect their hands with 70-degree alcohol after finishing the work.

Example: We have 50 cc of 96 degree alcohol. Calculate the amount of solution that can be prepared with a concentration of 70%.

L=(P.K) ÷ C 50×96) ÷ 70 = 5.68

The amount of distilled water required is 18.57 cc and 5.68 cc of 70% solution can be prepared.

Savelan

To disinfect the skin before surgery or injections, one part of Savlen solution in 15 parts of 70 degree ethyl alcohol is used. The same solution can be used to disinfect medical instruments such as probes, gloves and thermometers (one part saline, 30 parts water). The above solution is used for 30 minutes to clean and disinfect sharp metal tools and equipment.

For the initial washing of wounds and their disinfection and cleaning of the delivery area, also after delivery, a solution of 1% Savlon (one part of Savlon in 100 parts of water) is used.

Halamid

It has the property of disinfecting, disinfecting, treating and curing wounds.

For this purpose, 2-3% Halamide solution can be used to wash wounds without any fear of skin discomfort or increased pain.

The advantage of Halamid is that after using it, it does not leave a stain on the skin around the wound.

Uses of Halamide:

Kitchen utensils, meat chopping knife, meat grinder, cooking utensils, plates, cutlery, glasses and other utensils – should be washed and cleaned first in hot water and then in a 3% solution (3 grams per liter of water) for a few minutes. Soak for a minute and then wash with plain water.

3% Halamide solution is used to disinfect the table top and wooden parts inside the kitchen, creamer and ice cream machine and refrigerator after washing and cleaning.

To disinfect the walls of the kitchen and the toilet, a solution of 1.5 per thousand (15 grams or one tablespoon per 10 liters of water) of Halamide is used every 3 months. As a result, fungus and mold are not seen in wet places, etc., and prevent peeling of the wall surface.

Disinfection of clothes and disinfection of hands is done with 3% Halamide solution.

A solution of 3% Halamide is used to disinfect the patient’s room, bed, bedding, toilet.

To disinfect vegetables and lettuce, etc., after normal washing (with water and dishwashing liquid according to what was said), a solution of 3% Halamide is used.

In order to disinfect cars carrying suspected patients and after bathing corpses with infectious diseases, the laundry room and work clothes should be disinfected with a solution of 5% Halamide (5 grams per liter of water).

lime

Lime is the cheapest disinfectant. It is also odorless and safe to use. When mixed with 8 to 10 times its weight or 4 times its volume with water, lime juice is obtained and is very useful for disinfecting feces. (For example, if we have 1 kg of lime, we need 8 to 10 liters of water, and if we have 1 liter of liquid lime, we need 4 liters of water to make tap water with a mixture of water and lime.) The minimum volume of lime used should be be the size of stool.

Milk of lime is used to whiten different parts of the barn of dairy cows, because it kills spore-bearing bacteria.

Lime is also used to remove odors. Lime can kill typhoid and cholera germs within an hour. Phlegm, feces and vomit of epidemic patients as well as garbage are collected in closed containers and disinfected with 20% lime juice.

When a plague patient dies, if no other disinfectant is available, a layer of lime is poured on the bottom of the coffin and the body is placed in it.

Betadine (povidone iodine)

Betadine is soluble and has fungicidal and germicidal properties. This solution is used to disinfect wounds and burns in all ages. In the case of burns, after disinfection with betadine solution, you must wash the area completely with sterile saline so that betadine does not remain on the burn area. Diluting the medicine before or during use should be avoided.

stroke

To disinfect clothes, quilts, blankets, mattresses, etc., you can use a solution of 3 grams of stroke in one liter of water. For this purpose, prepare a sufficient amount of the above solution and soak the quilt, blanket, etc. in it for half an hour and then wash it. Stroke solution with the same concentration can also be used to disinfect ambulances and patient transports, or the floors of health centers and other contaminated places.

Necessary recommendations on the use of detergents and cleaners

You should avoid mixing substances such as perchlorine, bleaching powder, bleaching water or other bleaching substances with any acidic substance.

If you suffer from chlorine poisoning, immediately go to the open air and take deep breaths. Then pour some normal alcohol on the cotton and inhale it with deep breaths and then drink a glass of milk and rest in a quiet place.

Follow all warnings and precautions on chemical labels. For example, you should pay attention to allergies and sensitivities caused by some medicines.

If necessary, protective clothing such as gloves and goggles should be used according to the instructions on the label of the chemical.

You should never eat or drink anything while using dangerous chemicals such as pesticides.

In case of hand and foot contact with chemicals, immediately wash the area thoroughly with water.

Compiled by: Nazanin Bulgari

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